Lora (Long Range) portable tracking device, as its meaning suggests, is a communications system intended to be used to send data wirelessly for up to 15 kilometers. The difference of this technology with other wireless systems is its focus on low power consumption while keeping its long-range. As such, it is part of the group of IoT standards and protocols. Lora portable tracking device may refer to the physical layer protocol introduced by Semtech or LoRaWAN, a network layer protocol intended to be used for battery-powered systems.
The physical layer protocol version of the LoRa portable tracking device was acquired by Semtech from the French company Cycle in 2012. The protocol utilizes chirp spread spectrum technology to send data over 915 (US) or 868 (Europe) MHz bands with alternates 169 and 433 MHz. Each LoRa portable tracking device transmission can carry up to 51 bytes for lower data rates and 222 bytes for higher data rates. The data rate peaks at about 50 kbps and a minimum of 300 bps, that can save the cost of portable GPS tracking devices.
The LoRaWAN portable tracking device network protocol is built on the top of the LoRa portable tracking device physical layer protocol and is primarily used by low-power sensors for communication. A typical LoRaWAN portable tracking device consists of end-node devices (sensors), gateways, network servers, and application servers. The sensors transmit data asynchronously through the gateways to a network server which then sends the data to application servers.
Following are the advantages of LoRaWAN portable tracking device:
(1) It uses 868 MHz/ 915 MHz ISM bands which is available worldwide.
(2) It has a very wide coverage range of about 5 km in urban areas and 15 km in suburban areas.
(3) It consumes less power and hence battery will last for a longer duration.
(4) Single LoRa Gateway device is designed to take care of 1000s of end devices or nodes.
(5) It is easy to deploy due to its simple architecture as shown in figure-1.
(6) It uses an Adaptive Data Rate technique to vary the output data rate/Rf output of end devices. This helps in maximizing battery life as well as the overall capacity of the LoRaWAN network. The data rate can be varied from 0.3 kbps to 27 Kbps for 125 kHz bandwidth.
(7) Lora mini GPS tracker especially included in M2M/IoT applications.
(8) The physical layer uses robust CSS modulation. CSS stands for Chirp Spread Spectrum. It uses 6 SF (spreading factors) from SF 7 to 12. This delivers orthogonal transmissions at different data rates. Moreover, it provides processing gain and hence transmitter output power can be reduced with the same RF link budget and hence will increase battery life.
(9) Lora mini GPS tracking device uses LoRa modulation which has constant envelope modulation similar to FSK modulation type and hence available PA (power amplifier) stages having low cost and low power with high efficiency can be used.
(10) LoRaWAN portable tracking device supports three different types of devices viz. class-A, class-B, and class-C.
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